Why have Jews been disliked and persecuted?
Notes on usury, the charging of interest on loans, “the term is largely derived from abrahamic religious principles”
Forbidden by Christians, Jews were allowed to charge interest on monies lent to non-Jews
“The Torah regulates interest taking, one understanding is that Israelites were forbidden to charge interest on loans made to other Israelites, but allowed to charge interest on transactions with lesser non-Israelites”
The first Jewish families of significance were recorded as landing in England with William the conqueror, Jews were declared to be direct subjects of the king.
Jews filled the monetary void that was created by the church “forbidding the lending of money for profit”
“Peasants were forced to pay their taxes to the Jews, who were coerced to become the front men for the lords”
As a result the Jews became incredibly unpopular with both the church and the public
Jews in England
1218, England became the first state requiring Jews to wear a marking badge
1275 the ‘Statute of Jewry” outlawed usury (among other stipulations) and gave Jews 15 years to adjust (change professions) this was incredibly difficult as tradesmen belonged to guilds and they forbade members who were not Christian.
1287 Edward expelled all Jews, making any debts owed void
1655 formal return of Jews to England, (Sephardic Jews were expelled from Spain and Portugal in 1492/1497 and found refuge in England, Cromwell needed their financial assistance so they were allowed to stay)
1745 Jacobite Rising, Jews had shown loyalty to the government, the chief financier Sampson Gideon had strengthened the stock market, and younger members had defended London.
1753 Jewish Naturalization act, allowed Jews to be naturalized, faced very strong opposition and was repealed however left a legacy of religious toleration
Sampson Gideon determined to bring up his children as Christians and many important families followed suit, breaking their connections with the synagogues and integrating into the community.
Why Did the Jews settle in London?
Sephardic Jews, follow Rabbinical /authorities, from Spain, Portugal, returned to England in the Middle Ages when they were expelled from France. Set up communities in London as the centre of international commerce
Ashkenazi, 92% of the worlds Jews German and Polish Jews. Migrated to Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Russia, and Eastern Europe Settled in the south and southwest, seaport towns.
No clear definition, but one is that if your great grandmother was Jewish (i.e. 3 generations on the female side of your family)